Papaya is a tropical fruit known as “Carica papaya”. It has commercial importance because of its medicinal value and is highly nutritious. Papaya originated in Costa Rica and South Mexico. This fruit is popular because of its high medicinal and nutritional value. Consequently, the production of this fruit is quite higher per unit than any other fruit crop. Papaya cultivation on a commercial scale in the foothills and plain valleys of every state of the northeastern region.
It is the fourth important crop of the region, among the hill states. Manipur contributes the most in production, after that Tripura and Mizoram. Papaya is a crop native to Mexico and was introduced to India in the 16th century. Now papaya fruit has become popular all over India and is the most important fruit of the country.
The total annual world production is estimated at 6 million tonnes of fruit. India leads the world in papaya production with about 3 million tonnes annual production. Other major producers are Brazil, Mexico, Nigeria, Indonesia, China, Peru, Thailand and the Philippines.
Process of Papaya Cultivation in India
You need to know the essential sections to help in profitable commercial farming when you start a plant to plant. We can provide information related to more reliable tractors in papaya farming. You can use the Captain tractor any other, which aids in the whole process of cultivation. Here we are describing the process of papaya.
1. Land Preparation for Papaya Cultivation
For cultivation, a well-drained upland is selected. Plants are exposed to strong storms or wind in high and open lying regions. Therefore, you should plant this crop at the orchard boundary to properly establish papaya plantations.
2. Climatic Condition for Papaya Cultivation
Generally, papaya is a tropical plant. However, it also grows in subtropical parts. For papaya cultivation, using the foothills area, which enjoys the mild winter, is ideal. Low temperatures and frost limit its cultivation at high altitudes. Due to extremely cold nights, the fruits ripen slowly and become of poor quality during the winter season.
Farmers can grow it up to an altitude of 1000 m above sea level, but from an altitude of 600 m, the size and quality of the fruits gradually decrease. Since it grows in subtropical and tropical climates, they can cultivate it in the temperature range of 25-35˚C. Farmers can grow this crop with an evenly distributed annual rainfall of 1500–2000 mm.
However, the yield may be poor compared to an irrigated crop because of the winter drought leading to plant and fruit development. High humidity affects the sweetness of the fruit. Fruits lose their sweetness even at low temperatures. It requires a hot and dry climate during the ripening season. Being a plant with shallow and soft roots, it cannot withstand strong winds.
3. Suitable Soil for Papaya Cultivation
Farmers can grow papaya in various types of soils, except sandy and heavy clay or sticky soils. The roots of this crop are sensitive to standing water or waterlogging. Even drowning for forty-eight hours can be fatal to the plant. Heavy soils tend to store water during heavy rainfall and cause diseases such as foot-root and root-rot, which can destroy plantations quickly. Therefore, slightly zig-zag land is preferred over completely flat land. The hilly soil of this region is best suited for being well-drained in organic matter.
4. Propagation in Papaya Cultivation
Always propagate Papaya by seed and collect them from large-sized, ripe, healthy fruits, essentially from female plants free of pests and diseases for propagation. Sometimes, the seeds fail to germinate as the viability of the seed is completely lost in about 45 days. Removal of the mucous membrane (Sarcotesta) from the seed helps in more rapid and uniform germination than seeds whose Sarcotesta remains intact. You can easily remove sarcotesta by fermenting, the seeds in a bucket of water for two to three days.
When fermented seeds mixed with wood ash and rubbed gently in a piece of sackcloth, Sarcotesta breaks easily. The seeds washed in another vessel or vessel containing water to remove the exogenous matter. Viable seeds are submerged in water, while non-viable seeds, Sarcotestus and other debris float can be removed. Farmers can sow the seeds immediately or dry in the shade and store them in an airtight container. However, the seeds should never dried in the sun, leading to a complete loss of their viability.
5. Planting Method for Papaya Cultivation
Farmers plant the seedlings in pits of 60x60x60 cm size. Before planting, you should dig the pits about a fortnight in the summer months. And, you should fill the pits with ideal soil and 20 kg farmyard manure, 1 kg bone meal, 1 kg neem cake. Apart from this, you should plant vigorous and tall varieties at greater spacing while the dwarf and medium ones are closer.
Need the Equipment in the Papaya Cultivation
When you want to get information about farming, you should also know the tools that will help in increasing the yield. Rotavator, cultivator, tiller and tractor are essential in every farming. However, of all the equipment, the tractor is the most important. That’s why we recommend the Kubota Tractor for papaya cultivation in India.
For more information regarding papaya cultivation in India, stay tuned with us.